COVID-19 Antibody Test

Priority STD Testing will soon be offering COVID-19 antibody testing. If you believe you were exposed to or contracted COVID-19, this test will determine if you developed antibodies against the disease.

What is coronavirus disease (COVID-19)?

Coronavirus disease (also called COVID-19) is a serious respiratory illness. It is caused by SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus), one of the most recently discovered types of coronaviruses. It was first identified in Wuhan, China, at the end of 2019 and has spread
globally, becoming a worldwide pandemic. Those who have this disease may or may not experience symptoms, which range from mild to severe.

What is a serology test?

This serology test checks for a type of antibody called immunoglobulin G (IgG) . If you’ve been exposed to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, your body produces IgG antibodies as part of the immune response to the virus. This test cannot tell you if you have an active infection with SARS-CoV-2. If you suspect you have COVID-19, follow up with your healthcare provider about getting a molecular (PCR) test.

Is this COVID-19 antibody test qualitative or quantitative?

The COVID-19 antibody test is a qualitative test to detect IgG antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 virus in your blood. IgG antibody testing should be performed to help identify people who may have been previously exposed to SARS-CoV-2 and may indicate prior infection which may be resolved or is still resolving, and/or protection against re-infection (“protective immunity”).

Who should get tested?

This test may be right for you if you:

  • Have been diagnosed with COVID-19, it has been at least 7 days, and you want to know if you have IgG antibodies.
  • Have not had symptoms and have not had a known exposure to SARS-CoV-2 within the last 7 days but want to see if you have IgG antibodies.
  • Have had or suspect you’ve had COVID-19 but have not experienced a fever in the past 3 days.
  • Have had or suspect you’ve had COVID-19 but have not experienced any new symptoms in the past 7 days (these symptoms include loss of smell or taste, difficulty breathing, feeling weak or lethargic, lightheadedness or dizziness, vomiting or diarrhea, slurred speech, and/or seizures).

Who should NOT get tested?

This test may NOT be right for you if you:

  • Are feeling sick or have had a fever within the last 3 days.
  • Are trying to diagnose COVID-19.
  • Have been diagnosed with COVID-19 less than 7 days ago.
  • Were directly exposed to SARS-CoV-2 in the past 14 days.
  • Have a condition that weakens your immune system.

What will my results tell me?

Your test results may help identify if you were exposed to the virus and, if so, whether or not your body has these antibodies. Although having antibodies usually gives immunity from further infection, there is not enough evidence at this time to suggest that people who have IgG antibodies are protected against future SARS-CoV-2 infections. Results from this test also will not provide any information on whether you can spread the virus to others.

If you have questions about returning to work, contact your employer for guidance. Be sure to continue to follow federal, state, and local government guidance regarding social distancing and isolation.

Learn more about your COVID-19 antibody test results.

Are there any limitations to IgG antibody tests?

It usually takes around 10 to 18 days after being infected with SARS-CoV-2 for your body to produce enough antibodies for detection in the blood. Getting an IgG antibody test too soon after being infected may cause a negative result that is false (false negative). Additionally, IgG antibody tests may detect IgG antibodies from previous exposure to coronaviruses other than SARS-CoV-2. This can cause a positive result that is false (false positive). There is not enough evidence at this time to suggest that people who have IgG antibodies are protected against future SARS-CoV-2
infections.

Are there any risks involved in getting this test?

There is no risk involved in getting this test. The test is conducted by collecting a blood sample.

What is the sensitivity and specificity of his COVID-19 antibody test?

The absolute sensitivity of the SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay is unknown. A negative result does not rule out COVID-19 and should not be used as the sole basis for treatment, patient management decisions, or to rule out active infection. Individuals tested early after infection may not have detectable IgG antibody despite active infection; in addition, not all individuals will develop a detectable IgG response to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

The specificity of the SARS-CoV-2 IgG immunoassays is approximately 99% to 100%.

Is this COVID-19 serology test approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or have Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) from the FDA?

The United States FDA has made this test available under an emergency access mechanism called an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA). The EUA is supported by the Secretary of Health and Human Service’s (HHS’s) declaration that circumstances exist to justify the emergency use of in vitro diagnostics (IVDs) for the detection and/or diagnosis of the virus that causes COVID-19. An IVD made available under an EUA has not undergone the same type of review as an FDA-approved or cleared IVD. FDA may issue an EUA when certain criteria are met, which includes that there are no adequate, approved, available alternatives, and based on the totality of scientific evidence available, it is reasonable to believe that this IVD may be effective in the detection of IgG antibodies to the virus that causes COVID-19. The EUA for this test is in effect for the duration of the COVID-19 declaration justifying emergency use of IVDs, unless terminated or revoked (after which the test may no longer be used).

How do I prepare for the test?

You do not need to do anything to prepare for the test. Further instructions will be provided to you at the lab or in your test kit.

For additional information about COVID-19 testing, see our FAQs below or visit the PWNHealth website.

Where can I get more information about serology testing?

For additional information about serology testing, visit the FDA website or the CDC website.

General FAQs

There are currently no vaccines for COVID-19. The best way to protect yourself is to avoid
situations in which you may be exposed to the virus. Everyday actions can help protect you and
prevent the spread of respiratory diseases such as COVID-19.

  • Avoid close contact with people who are sick.
  • Restrict any activities outside your home and maintain a safe distance (around 6 feet) between yourself and other people if COVID-19 is spreading in your community. This includes avoiding crowded areas, shopping malls, religious gatherings, public transportation, etc.
  • Wear simple cloth face coverings in public settings (like grocery stores and pharmacies) where social distancing is difficult, especially in areas where COVID-19 is spreading.
  • Stay home when you are sick, unless you are seeking medical care.
  • Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces (including tables, doorknobs, light switches, countertops, handles, desks, phones, keyboards, toilets, faucets, and sinks).
  • Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds.
  • Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol if soap and water aren’t available. Always wash hands with soap and water if your hands are visibly dirty.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.

If you think you have been exposed, it is important to closely monitor for symptoms. Most mild cases of COVID-19 resolve within 2 weeks without treatment. Seek medical attention immediately if you develop severe symptoms, especially if you experience any of the following:

  • Severe trouble breathing (such as being unable to talk without gasping for air)
  • Continuous pain or pressure in your chest
  • Feeling confused
  • Blue-colored lips or face
  • Severe and continuous dizziness or lightheadedness

If you seek medical attention, be sure to call ahead before visiting the facility. This will help the facility keep other people from possibly getting infected or exposed.

  • Tell any healthcare provider that you may have COVID-19.
  • Avoid using public transportation, ride-sharing, or taxis.
  • Put on a facemask before you enter any healthcare facility.

Social distancing, also called “physical distancing,” means keeping space between yourself and other people outside of your home. It is one of the best ways to avoid being exposed and to help slow the spread of the virus, especially if you are in an area where COVID-19 is widespread. It is important to stay away from others when possible, even if you have no symptoms. Social distancing is especially important for people who are at higher risk of getting very sick.

Social or physical distancing includes:

  • Stay at least 6 feet (2 meters) from other people
  • Not gathering in groups
  • Staying out of crowded places and avoiding mass gatherings

If you think you may have been exposed to COVID-19, it is very important to stay home and limit your interaction with others in your household and in public.

  • If you have not been tested but may have been exposed to COVID-19, self-monitoring and self-quarantine is recommended to see if you get sick.
  • If you have tested positive for COVID-19, self-isolation is recommended so that you do not pass the virus to others.

For more information on self-isolation and self-quarantine, click here.

If you are a healthcare professional, first responder, frontline worker, or critical infrastructure worker and believe you have been directly exposed while at work, you should consult your place of work for specific occupational health guidance about whether to stay home or continue working. You should adhere to recommendations set forth by your employer or the department of health, as they may differ from the CDC’s guidelines.

Isolation and quarantine are both ways to limit your interaction with others to prevent the spread of disease.

  • Isolation is separating individuals with COVID-19 from people who are not sick. Individuals are separated for a period of time until they are no longer infectious.
  • Quarantine is separating individuals who may have been exposed to COVID-19 but haven’t been tested. They are separated for a brief period of time (14 days after possible exposure) to see if they develop symptoms.

For more information on self-isolation and self-quarantine, click here.

If you are a healthcare professional, first responder, frontline worker, or critical infrastructure worker and believe you have been directly exposed while at work, you should consult your place of work for specific occupational health guidance about whether to stay home or continue working. You should adhere to recommendations set forth by your employer or the department of health, as they may differ from the CDC’s guidelines.

The decision to discontinue in-home isolation for patients with COVID-19 should be made on a case-by-case basis in consultation with your healthcare provider. Follow-up with your healthcare provider to discuss when to stop in-home isolation. See the CDC website for more information.

If you are a healthcare professional, first responder, frontline worker, or critical infrastructure worker and believe you have been directly exposed while at work, you should consult your place of work for specific occupational health guidance about whether to stay home or continue working. You should adhere to recommendations set forth by your employer or the department of health, as they may differ from the CDC’s guidelines.

At this time, it is not known whether someone who has been infected with SARS-CoV-2 can become infected again after recovering.

Serology (Antibody) Test FAQs

A serology test looks for antibodies in the blood. Your immune system makes antibody proteins to help fight infections. If you were exposed to SARS-CoV-2, a serology test will show whether or not you’ve developed antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. These antibodies usually reach detectable levels in the blood about 10 to 18 days after symptoms start.

Currently, a serology test can measure two antibodies: IgM and IgG.

  • Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is produced as the body’s first response to a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Generally, IgM may provide short-term protection and can help tell if an individual has been recently infected. However, there is not enough evidence at this time to suggest that people who have IgM antibodies are protected against future SARS-CoV-2 infections.
  • Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is the most common type of antibody. It’s made several days to weeks after being exposed to SARS-CoV-2. Generally, IgG remains in the body and may provide long-term protection against future exposure. However, there is not enough evidence at this time to suggest that people who have IgG antibodies are protected against future SARS-CoV-2 infections.

Based on the most current research, IgG antibodies develop around 10 to 18 days after infection from SARS-CoV-2.

It usually takes around 10 to 18 days after being infected with SARS-CoV-2 for your body to produce enough antibodies for detection in the blood. Getting an IgG antibody test too soon after being infected may cause a negative result that is false (false negative). Additionally, IgG antibody tests may detect IgG antibodies from previous exposure to coronaviruses other than SARS-CoV-2.

This can cause a positive result that is false (false positive). There is not enough evidence at this time to suggest that people who have IgG antibodies are protected against future SARS-CoV-2 infections.

An IgG antibody test can tell whether you’ve been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 and whether or not your immune system has responded by making IgG antibodies.

Serology (antibody) tests cannot be used to diagnose COVID-19. IgG antibody tests can help us understand how the immune system responds to SARS-CoV-2 and how many people have been infected. In the future, IgG antibody tests may be able to tell us whether an individual has immunity against SARS-CoV-2.

Serology tests check to see if you’ve developed antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, which occurs after being exposed to the virus. Serology tests do not show whether a person is currently infected. Molecular tests, also called PCR ( polymerase chain reaction), show if you’re currently infected and can spread SARS-CoV-2 to others.

If you’re having symptoms of COVID-19 or have been recently exposed to someone diagnosed with COVID-19, you would get a molecular (PCR) test to see if you have an active infection. If you want to check to see if you’ve been previously exposed to SARS-CoV-2, then you would get a serology (antibody) test.

IgG antibody tests do not show whether a person is currently infected. Therefore it should not be used in place of a molecular (PCR) test to diagnose a current infection.

Serology tests are collected through a blood sample (such as from a finger prick or needle draw). Molecular (PCR) tests are collected through the nose with a swab. The swab takes nasal secretions from the back of the nose and throat. This can also be done by a saliva test.

No. If you’re currently having symptoms of COVID-19 or have recently been exposed, you should get a molecular PCR test to see if you’re currently infected. Serology tests check to see if you’ve developed antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, which occurs after being exposed to the virus. A serology test cannot tell you whether you have a current infection.

If you’re having symptoms of COVID-19, contact your doctor or local health department to get tested for active infection. The serology (antibody) test can only tell you if you’ve been exposed and have developed an immune response, but it cannot say whether you have an active infection. For that, you’ll need a molecular (PCR) test.

At this time, there is not enough evidence to suggest that people who have IgG antibodies are protected against future SARS-CoV-2 infections.

No. There is no test that can tell you when to stop isolating. Check with your primary healthcare provider or local health department to help determine when it’s right to stop isolation. Be sure to continue to follow federal, state, and local government guidance regarding social distancing and isolation.

No. There is no test that can tell you when you can visit someone who is at risk for more severe symptoms of COVID-19. Check with your primary healthcare provider or local health department to help determine when the time is right to make such visits. Be sure to continue to follow federal, state, and local government guidance regarding social distancing and isolation.

Yes. IgG antibody tests can complement molecular (PCR) tests by providing information about exposure and how the immune system responds to SARS-CoV-2 infections.